Laser processing technology in sheet metal workshop
1 Application of laser cutting technology Laser cutting uses CO2 laser or YAC laser to perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional cutting processing, which has the characteristics of high cutting accuracy. The power of the laser source varies from 5W to 90kW. There are series of products from 5W to 90kW. The laser cutting of sheet metal parts mainly uses a power laser of 100W to 1500W. When the output power of the laser source is less than 1500W, the laser source is in single-mode oscillation mode, which can cut 0.2mm width, which should be clean and flat after cutting with power; when the output power of the laser source is greater than 1500W, the laser source is multi-mode oscillation Mode, can cut 1mm width, but there will be a small amount of dirt after cutting with power. When cutting thick plates, auxiliary gases are required. The auxiliary gases include air, oxygen, and nitrogen. Nitrogen can prevent oxidation of the cut surface during the cutting process. Oxygen is suitable for high-speed cutting of thick plates. Laser cutting machine cutting can use CAD or CAM technology to provide processing information and processing parameters for processing workpiece models and lasers, which can complete production quickly and accurately, and realize automated cutting. Laser cutting especially needs to replace the mold, which can shorten the production preparation cycle and reduce the production cost. 2 Laser welding technology Laser welding can be divided into pulse welding and high-power continuous welding. Laser welding can obtain high-density energy from a laser source for a single weld. High-speed welding is less affected by heat and deformation of the weld, the welded joint has high quality and the weld size of laser welding can be controlled. In laser welding, when matched with the same power, speed and lens, the focal plane of the laser lens and the position of the welding material can affect the heating efficiency of the material. Usually, the welding material should be higher than the focal plane of the laser lens. Laser welding in the sheet metal workshop can weld plates of iron, stainless steel, aluminum, copper and titanium with a thickness of 0.1mm-10mm A mixed welding method of arc welding (MIG)) and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). At this time, the technicians in the sheet metal workshop should closely cooperate with the technicians in the customer's unit. 3 Laser drilling technology Laser drilling technology is the earliest practical laser technology in laser material processing technology. Laser drilling in the sheet metal workshop generally uses pulsed lasers, which have high energy density and short time. It can process small holes of 1μm. It is especially suitable for processing small holes with a certain angle and thin material, and it is also suitable for processing strength and hardness. Deep small holes and tiny holes on parts of higher or more brittle and softer materials. The laser can realize the drilling of the combustor parts of the gas turbine, and the drilling effect can realize the three-dimensional direction, and the number can reach thousands. Perforated materials include stainless steel, nickel-chromium-iron alloys and HASTELLOY-based alloys. The laser drilling technology is not affected by the mechanical properties of the material, and it is easier to realize automation. 4 Laser forming technology The laser forming technology of the sheet metal workshop includes laser shock forming technology and laser bending forming technology, which can realize the processing of curved plates, hemispheres, spheres and parts with special-shaped cross-sections. It can also process convex and concave shapes on complex pipe fittings. Laser shock forming technology uses a laser source to irradiate the cladding of the sheet metal, and the cladding of the sheet metal will undergo plastic deformation after being heated. The laser bending forming technology uses a laser source to irradiate the parts of the workpiece that need to be bent, and then rapidly cools down after being heated to produce bending deformation. The laser bending forming technology is especially used in the mass production of sheet metal parts.